Party: Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK)
State : Tamil Nadu
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DMK History :
** In order to safeguard the interests of Dravidians, Arignar Anna established the DMK party on 17th September 1949.
Related : DMK Online Membership Form/ Join The Party Tamil Nadu : www.electionin.in/4112.html
** In fact, Tamil scholars consider the birth of Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (DMK) as the renaissance that revolutionized the state of Tamil Nadu.
** Anna’s DMK was viewed as the guardian of the Tamil language and its culture.
** In 1916, a group of elite personalities including Sir P Thyagrayar, Dr. Natesan, Dr. TM Nair, and a few others started the Justice Party.
** The party was named after the English Journal, ‘Justice’ published by the society of the same name ahead of the formation of the party.
** The core objective of the party was to protect the interest of the Dravidians in the state.
** The Brahmin community dominated the only national party then, the Congress.
** E.V. Ramasamy, also called Thanthai Periyar, left the Congress party to form the Self-Respect Movement in 1925.
** The movement transformed into Dravida Kazhagam (DK).
** The principles of the movement attracted several revered personalities, such as Anna that spread the word across the state.
** However, over time, Anna separated from the movement due to difference of opinion with other leaders.
** In 1949, Anna floated the DMK. He was elected as the general secretary of the party and Kalaignar was entrusted with the responsibility of spearheading the campaigns and garnering support among the people of Tamil Nadu.
** The DMK flourished under the leadership of Anna. For the first time, the party utilized the media to gain momentum.
** While Anna published his journal ‘Dravida Nadu’, Kalaignar revolutionized the party with his own journal ‘Murasoli’.
** Anna was a great orator and a statesman. His revolutionary speeches and his popular slogan Duty-Dignity-Discipline enchanted the people of Tamil Nadu.
** In 1957, the DMK party leaders won 15 seats in the State Assembly and 2 in the Parliament making a dent in the once invincible Congress party.
** Within eighteen years of its formation, DMK was able to form the government in Tamil Nadu.
** After the demise of Arignar Anna, Dr. Kalaignar was elected as the party president.
** Prof K. Anbazhagan became the secretary and Arcot Veerasamy became the treasurer.
** Currently MK Stalin is the treasure of DMK and has been declared as the heir apparent by Dr. Kalaignar Karunanidhi.
** As of now, DMK has over 65-Lakh members and over 60,000 branches all over Tamil Nadu.
** It is the only party that has a democratic internal structure wherein leaders are elected by the members.
Social Reformation and National Integrity :
** In order to encourage the handloom professionals, DMK leaders decided to wear only indigenously made handloom clothes.
** The party also spent a substantial sum of money to help the people who were affected by a violent storm in 1954.
** In 1962, during the Chinese aggression, DMK extended its full support to the Congress government.
** DMK also contributed a huge sum to up hold security of the nation.
** It was at this juncture that DMK put an end to its demand for a separate nation for the Dravidians and started to strengthen the hands of Indian government.
** In 1971, during the India-Pakistan war, Dr. Kalaignar, then the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu along with other party members contributed Rs. 6 crores to strengthen the National security.
** DMK has always shown great interest in the National security and, again, during the 1999 India-Pakistan war at Kargil, the Tamil Nadu government under the leadership of Dr. Kalaignar donated a sum of Rs. 50.43 crores to safeguard the nation’s interests.
** The families of Tamil soldiers who lost their lives in the Kargil war were provided with cash assistance, job offers, and other assistance including education of their children.
** Apart from fulfilling its responsibilities in the social sphere, DMK has also formed a Trust which funds a research library, and an eye care clinic within the premises of Arivalayam.
** The trust helps around 15-lakh under privileged people who fall victims to natural disasters every year.
Notable agitations :
DMK has never hesitated in safeguarding the interests of the Tamil citizens. Within five years of its debut, DMK organized protests condemning the ‘Kula kalvi Thittam’ of Rajaji; against the then Prime Minister Pandit Nehru who addressed Tamils as fools; and against the name change of Kallakudi into Dalmiapuram. During the protests in Kallakudi that was lead by Dr. Kalaignar, six party members lost their lives and over 5,000 of them were arrested.
Note: Kula Kalvi Thittam is an educational system in which the students would have to learn the occupations of their parents.
Anti-Hindi protests :
Right from the early days, Sanskrit (the mother of Hindi) has been trying to dominate Tamil language unsuccessfully. The early Tamil poets had expressed their displeasure toward Sanskrit. After independence, the Congress party was planning to introduce Hindi in the state of Tamil Nadu as the national language. Had Tamil Nadu succumbed to the pressures of the Center, today, the state of Tamil language would be in a pitiable state. In 1953, Thanthai Periyar protested against making Hindi as mandatory subject in the schools during the Congress regime. For a second time, the Indian government under the leadership of Rajiv Gandhi introduced Navodaya schools, which had Hindi as the medium of instruction. In the modern era, DMK continues to do the noble job of refuting forces that try to destroy or defame the Tamil language and culture. Had DMK not taken a lead role in the Anti-Hindi agitations, all those who do not speak Hindi would have been classified as second grade citizens.
Anna’s reign :
In his short term in office, Anna worked tirelessly for the realization of long desired wishes of the Tamils.
Some of the achievements accomplished during his rule include the following:
** He changed the name of the state from Madras state to Tamil Nadu.
** He amended the law to provide security to reformist marriages, such as inter-caste marriages.
** He abolished the use of Hindi as an official language and established the Bilingual method of using Tamil and English as official languages.
** He was the first one test the “A gallon, a Rupee” scheme in which residents of Chennai and Coimbatore were provided a gallon of rice for a rupee. He also provided fire proof housing for the poor and floated state owned buses for the benefit of the Tamils.
** In January 1968, he organized the 2nd World Tamil Conference in a grand fashion which left every Tamil proud.
However, his reign did not last long; Anna expired on 3rd February 1969.
The modern era of DMK :
In order to fulfill the dreams of Arignar Anna, Dr. Kalaignar was anointed as the Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu on 10th February 1969. In fact, party members have often compared the relationship between Anna and Kalaignar to that of Socrates and Plato in philosophy; when it came to building the party they were compared to Lenin and Stalin; and as upholders of democracy arena, they resembled Gandhi and Nehru pair. During Kalaignar’s tenure as the party treasurer, Arignar Anna has assigned him the task of generating 10 lakhs of rupees for election purposes. Karunanidhi worked day and night, travelled far and wide, and came up with a total collection of Rs. 11 lakhs and Anna was overwhelmed by the dedication of Kalaignar towards the party. Upon becoming the sole leader of the party and the state, Kalaignar once for all changed the face of politics with his welfare schemes.
Dr. Kalaignar Karunanidhi Achievements :
Under the leadership of Dr. Kalaignar, Tamil Nadu has achieved new feats across various sectors.
A number of welfare schemes made their debut during the DMK regime.
Some of the notable ones that have become all time favorite of Tamils are as follows:
** Slum rehabilitation projects
** Beggars, leprosy patients rehab homes
** Shelter for the orphans in temples
** Free eye camps under ‘Kannoli Thittam’
** Free provisions for the poor during festivals
** Free electricity for farmers
** Separate departments for adi dravidar and Backward classes
** The first ever constitution of Police commission for the welfare of police
** Electricity and lighting for every village in Tamil Nadu
** Residential Plots for farmers
** Nationalization of Bus services
** Security for Government servants
** Abolition of red tape and secrecy
** Abolition of hand rickshaws and distribution of cycle rickshaws
** Rehab program for physically challenged
** Property rights for women
** Free education for girls
** Marriage assistance for poor women
** Thirty percent reservation for women in government jobs
** Pension scheme for freedom fighters
** Establishment of new universities
** Free bus passes for students
** Free homes for Scheduled tribes
** Twenty percent reservation for most backward classes
** State planning commission